Swimming Pools & Spas

Water for leisure use in swimming pools, water parks and spas needs careful control, balancing and monitoring to meet the requirements of the operators and the expectations of users. The ideal pool and spa water has to:

•  Be crystal-clear and sparkling;

• Be completely free of any chemical and microbial contaminants including cysts;

• Be odour free, leaving no residual skin odour;

•  Leave no sensation of stinging eyes or skin;

•  Be a totally natural, safe experience, free from any evidence of chemical application.

For the operator of any commercial pool, water park or spa, the ideal water treatment technology is one where:

•  Users recognise the outstanding quality of the water and the absence of chemical taint.

•  Public liability is minimised as there are no hazardous chemicals in use and the microbial kill is total.

•  The maintenance and management of the water is comparatively simple and non-hazardous.

•  The critical water quality parameters of pH, calcium, bromine and FAOx are easily managed.

•  Super-chlorination routines are eliminated.

•  Pool cleaning routines are reduced, as fatty deposit tide lines are eliminated.

•  Make-up water is reduced.

•  Allow a rapid and safe response to contamination incidents.

Trihalomethanes (THMs)

Trihalomethanes are a group of four chemicals that are formed along with other disinfection by-products when chlorine or other disinfectants used to control microbial contaminants in pool and spa water react with organic and inorganic matter in water. Trihalomethanes are considered carcinogenic.

The presence of organic loads in swimming pool water from users who do not adequately shower before entering the water, or from young children, reacts with sodium hypochlorite to generate THMs. This is becoming an increasing Health & Safety concern in public pools and spas where conditions are ideal for THM propagation.

Giardia & Cryptosporidium

Giardia and Cryptosporidium are microscopic parasites that can be found in water. Giardia causes an intestinal illness called giardiasis and Cryptosporidium is responsible for a similar illness called cryptosporidiosis. Both parasites produce cysts that are very resistant to harsh environmental conditions and the majority of disinfectants including sodium hypochlorite and chlorine. When ingested, they germinate, reproduce, and cause illness. While not fatal, the principle symptoms of infection are unpleasant and include diarrhoea, vomiting, chills, headache, and fever and abdominal cramps.

The control of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in public and commercial swimming pools and spas is a major issue especially in facilities where there is a high usage by young children and populations from different origins.

In addition, the potentially fatal Legionnaires’ disease, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Mycobacterium avium and similar mycobacteria, and various amoebae also pose risks to users of public water facilities and potential liabilities to operators.

Environmental Credentials

ECA technology is now regarded as being the most environmentally sensitive water treatment technology available, which has comparative, if not higher, levels of efficacy and performance in eliminating microbiological contamination. The environmental footprint in deploying the technology is far smaller than comparative water treatments due to:

•  Natural, sustainable and small volume inputs of water and salt;

•  Small power consumption (electricity) to generate the anolyte;

•  In-situ generation of anolyte dispensing with transport and energy costs;

•  No transportation of hazardous chemicals with associated risks;

•  No disposal issues or seepage risk;

•  No Health and Safety issues relating either to the anolyte or its generation;

•  Anolyte only targets micro-organisms and completely harmless to macro-organisms and the environment;

•  No harmful by-products.